Why choose Geography as an Optional?

Geography has a lot of overlap with subjects including economy, environment and conservation. It is a multidisciplinary subject due to which it is taken into consideration by many of the candidates who are having a Science or Engineering background. Once you understand the concepts or the theory of any phenomenon, you will be able to write the answers easily in your own words. Discrete IAS’s affordable fee structure is very convenient for the aspirants and it is the best Geography Optional Coaching.

Best Geography Optional Coaching
Best Geography Optional Coaching

Syllabus – Geography Paper 1

Principles of Geography Physical Geography:

  • Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics…
  • Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and front genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation…
  • Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sea level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
  • Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
  • Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation…

Syllabus – Geography Paper 2

Geography Of India:

  • Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
  • Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  • Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications…
  • Industry: Evolution of industries: Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries…
  • Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade…
  • Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society: Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population…
  • Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities…
  • Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning…
  • Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganization; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm…
  • Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management.

Geography Optional is an optional that has plenty of benefits associated.

Opting Geography as an optional for UPSC Mains can be helpful for the candidates since it overlaps with the General Studies Paper 1 and sometimes it is beneficial for the essay paper also. But, considering this subject as an optional requires great efforts and this is because of its broad syllabus and complexity of the subject. Still it is considered as the most preferred optional subject by the UPSC candidates.

The first tip for the candidate is to practice freehand flow drawing of maps which will help in better presentation of answers in the UPSC Mains. Another tip is making accurate notes of all the facts and keep revising them. Geography is having huge overlap with the General Studies paper I which is true for both the Prelims and the Mains exams.

Some of the topics like tribal issues, reorganizations, etc. are covered in the optional subject. In the General Studies Paper I there are questions of approx. 80 – 100 marks which you would have covered while preparing for your optional. And choosing the best Geography optional coaching will be an important decision for starting the classes for Geography Optional Subject.